Trees

This pages are linked to the information boards which you can find along the Kus Tba forest trail. The trail itself starts at the lake. It is part of the marked hiking trails between Kus Tba, Mtatsminda, Kojori, Tskneti. One section, starting from the ridge, is dedicated to explain the forest habitat over 10 stations. Here you find some more informations to some of the contents. And in addition education packages for teachers and everyone who wants to provide some in nature education. The content of the education packages are designed in a way, that they can be applied in another forest as well.

Georgian Oak

Quercus iberica

Georgian Oak

Georgian Oak

Oaks are fairly large trees, growing up to 20–25 metres. The leaves are dark green and lobed, with an undulate margin. Male and female flowers are found on the same tree. After pollination by wind, female flowers develop into a large shiny seed held in a scaly wooden cup, commonly known as an acorn. The Georgian oak is known for its very short stalk and acorns that occur either in pairs or alone. They form forests together with chestnut, hornbeam and maple.

Georgian Oak

Georgian Oak

Oak trees support more wildlife than any other native trees. They provide a habitat for more than 257 species of insect, which are the food source for birds and other predators. The bark also provides a habitat for mosses, lichens and liverworts, and deadwood cavities for nesting birds and roosting bats. The acorns are eaten by a number of birds and mammals, including the jay, badger and red squirrel.

Oaks produce one of the hardest and most durable timbers on the planet. Not only the wood is of use. Leaves, bark and acorns were believed to heal many medical ailments, including diarrhea, inflammation and kidney stones. Acorns have also been used to make bread flour. Tannin found in the bark has been used to tan leather since at least Roman times.

Ash Tree

Fraxinus excelsior

Ash Tree

Ash Tree

Tall and graceful, ash trees often grow together, forming a domed canopy. The bark is pale brown to grey and fissures as the tree ages. The tree is easily identified in winter by its smooth twigs that have distinctive black, velvety leaf buds arranged opposite each other.

The leaves are pinnately compound, typically comprising 3–6 opposite pairs of light green, oval leaflets with tips up to 40 cm long. There is an additional singular ‘terminal’ leaflet at the end. The leaves can move in the direction of sunlight. They fall when they are still green. Male and female flowers typically grow on different trees, although a single tree can also have male and female flowers on different branches.

Flowers are purple and growing in spiked clusters at the tips of twigs. Once the female flowers have been pollinated by wind, they develop into conspicuous winged fruits, dispersed by birds and mammals.

Ash Tree

Ash Tree

People have worked with ash timber for years. But, ash has a much wider use than only timber. The young, green, immature seeds of ash are edible and have also been used in herbal medicine. Ash trees are in the olive family (Oleaceae) and produce oil that is chemically similar to olive oil.

In the 19th century ash was commonly used to construct carriages. Ash trees can live to a grand old age of 400 years – even longer if coppiced, the stems traditionally providing wood for firewood and charcoal.

Caucasian Hornbeam

Carpinus caucasica

Caucasian Hornbeam

Caucasian Hornbeam

Hornbeam is a small to medium-size tree, reaching heights of 15 – 25 meters. It requires a warm climate for good growth. The bark is smooth and greenish-grey. Wind-pollinated male and female catkins appear in early summer after the leaves. The tendency to coppice makes it a perfect tree for windbreak hedges.

Caucasian Hornbeam

Caucasian Hornbeam

The leaves are alternate with prominent veins giving a distinctive corrugated texture, and a serrated margin.

The texture feels hard and old, but they look all year round like they have not fully developed.

The hornbeam’s doubly serrated leaf edges help to tell them apart from the Common beech. The Common beech has wavy edges, not toothed.

Hornbeam is mainly used for furniture, flooring and wood turning, but traditionally the wood was made into ox yokes which were used to join a team of ploughing oxen together.

Other traditional uses were butchers’ chopping blocks, piano hammers, wood screws, coach wheels and cogs for windmills and water mills. It was also coppiced and pollarded for poles. The wood burns well and makes good firewood and charcoal. It is used for burning Qvevri.

A tonic made from hornbeam was said to relieve tiredness and exhaustion, and its leaves were used to stop bleeding and heal wounds.

Hornbeams provide shelter, roosting, nesting and foraging opportunities for birds and small mammals. It is the food plant for caterpillars of a number of moth species. Finches and tits and small mammals eat the seeds in autumn.

Hawthorn

Crataegus caucasica

Hawthorn

Hawthorn

Mature trees can reach a height of 15 m and are characterised by their dense, thorny habit, though they can grow as a small tree with a single stem. The bark is brown-grey, knotted and fissured, and twigs are slender and brown and covered in thorns.

The leaves are around 6 cm in length and comprised of toothed lobes, which cut at least halfway to the middle or ‘mid-rib’. They turn yellow before falling in autumn.

Hawthorn

Hawthorn

Male and female reproductive parts are contained within each flower. Flowers are highly scented, white or occasionally pink with five petals, and grow in flat-topped clusters. Once pollinated by insects, they develop into deep-red fruits known as ‚haws’.

This species is commonly found growing in hedgerows, woodland and scrub. It will grow in most soils, but flowers and fruits best in full sun. It has long been grown as a hedging plant and is a popular choice in wildlife gardens.

Common hawthorn timber is a creamy-brown colour, finely grained and very hard. It can be used in turnery and engraving and to make veneers and cabinets, as well as boxes, tool handles and boat parts. It also makes good firewood and charcoal, and has a reputation for burning at high temperatures.

The young leaves, flower buds and young flowers are all edible. They can be added to green salads and grated root salads. The leaves, berries, and flowers of hawthorn are used to make medicine.

Hawthorn is most commonly used for diseases of the heart and blood vessels, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. Hawthorn can help improve the amount of blood pumped out of the heart during contractions, widen the blood vessels, and increase the transmission of nerve signals. It is an incredible food resource for many different animal species.

The dense, thorny foliage makes fantastic nesting shelter for many species of bird.

Judas Tree

Cercis siliquastrum

Judas Tree

Judas Tree

This is an attractive, small deciduous tree with rounded, heart shaped leaves. In spring, clusters of pea-like flowers appear along the branches and trunk. These flowers are pink in colour and appear early in spring, before the foliage and are followed by long, flat, deep purple pods which hang decoratively throughout the tree. It reaches only 12 m in hight.

The nearly orbicular heart-shaped leaves emerge bronze red in spring, mature to deep green by summer and finally turn pale yellow to greenish-yellow to chestnut in fall. The flowers are. Pollinated by bees, which are attracted by the nectar. The seed pods mature by late summer and usually remain on the tree well into winter.

Judas Tree

Judas Tree

According to the legend, this is the tree that Judas the apostle hung himself, it is found everywhere in Israel. That might be why that name stuck. But it might also simply come from the fact that it is native to Judea.

The Judas tree produces hard wood with an attractive grain. It is used in veneers and polishes well. The flowers are edible and can be added to salads, eaten fried, or they can be preserved in spicy marinade. It is a popular astringent because of its pods. The bark is also used against headaches and flu. It is also referred to as a traditional Palestinian medicinal plant for its origins and studies demonstrating its impact on breast cancer.

It provides nectar and pollen for bees and many other types of pollinating insects.

The board shows you some of the trees, which grow in the direct neighborhood. They are easy to find. Nevertheless, more tree species can be found in the wider area of this forest.

If you seek help for further identification, we recommend

  • Flora incognita https:// floraincognita.com
  • „The main tree species of Georgian forests“. Field Guide. Lasha Dzadzamia
  • „Common trees and shrubs of Georgia. A field guide“: http://environment.cenn.org/app/uploads/2016/09/CENN_Field-Guide_ADC-SFG_ENG-2.pdf

Related Posts

Trees

This pages are linked to the information boards which you can find along the Kus Tba forest trail. The trail itself starts at the lake. It is part of the marked hiking trails between Kus Tba, Mtatsminda, Kojori, Tskneti. One section, starting from the ridge, is dedicated to explain the forest habitat over 10 stations. Here you find some more informations to some of the contents. And in addition education packages for teachers and everyone who wants to provide some in nature education. The content of the education packages are designed in a way, that they can be applied in another forest as well.

Georgian Oak

Quercus iberica

Georgian Oak

Georgian Oak

Oaks are fairly large trees, growing up to 20–25 metres. The leaves are dark green and lobed, with an undulate margin. Male and female flowers are found on the same tree. After pollination by wind, female flowers develop into a large shiny seed held in a scaly wooden cup, commonly known as an acorn. The Georgian oak is known for its very short stalk and acorns that occur either in pairs or alone. They form forests together with chestnut, hornbeam and maple.

Georgian Oak

Georgian Oak

Oak trees support more wildlife than any other native trees. They provide a habitat for more than 257 species of insect, which are the food source for birds and other predators. The bark also provides a habitat for mosses, lichens and liverworts, and deadwood cavities for nesting birds and roosting bats. The acorns are eaten by a number of birds and mammals, including the jay, badger and red squirrel.

Oaks produce one of the hardest and most durable timbers on the planet. Not only the wood is of use. Leaves, bark and acorns were believed to heal many medical ailments, including diarrhea, inflammation and kidney stones. Acorns have also been used to make bread flour. Tannin found in the bark has been used to tan leather since at least Roman times.

Ash Tree

Fraxinus excelsior

Ash Tree

Ash Tree

Tall and graceful, ash trees often grow together, forming a domed canopy. The bark is pale brown to grey and fissures as the tree ages. The tree is easily identified in winter by its smooth twigs that have distinctive black, velvety leaf buds arranged opposite each other.

The leaves are pinnately compound, typically comprising 3–6 opposite pairs of light green, oval leaflets with tips up to 40 cm long. There is an additional singular ‘terminal’ leaflet at the end. The leaves can move in the direction of sunlight. They fall when they are still green. Male and female flowers typically grow on different trees, although a single tree can also have male and female flowers on different branches.

Flowers are purple and growing in spiked clusters at the tips of twigs. Once the female flowers have been pollinated by wind, they develop into conspicuous winged fruits, dispersed by birds and mammals.

Ash Tree

Ash Tree

People have worked with ash timber for years. But, ash has a much wider use than only timber. The young, green, immature seeds of ash are edible and have also been used in herbal medicine. Ash trees are in the olive family (Oleaceae) and produce oil that is chemically similar to olive oil.

In the 19th century ash was commonly used to construct carriages. Ash trees can live to a grand old age of 400 years – even longer if coppiced, the stems traditionally providing wood for firewood and charcoal.

Caucasian Hornbeam

Carpinus caucasica

Caucasian Hornbeam

Caucasian Hornbeam

Hornbeam is a small to medium-size tree, reaching heights of 15 – 25 meters. It requires a warm climate for good growth. The bark is smooth and greenish-grey. Wind-pollinated male and female catkins appear in early summer after the leaves. The tendency to coppice makes it a perfect tree for windbreak hedges.

Caucasian Hornbeam

Caucasian Hornbeam

The leaves are alternate with prominent veins giving a distinctive corrugated texture, and a serrated margin.

The texture feels hard and old, but they look all year round like they have not fully developed.

The hornbeam’s doubly serrated leaf edges help to tell them apart from the Common beech. The Common beech has wavy edges, not toothed.

Hornbeam is mainly used for furniture, flooring and wood turning, but traditionally the wood was made into ox yokes which were used to join a team of ploughing oxen together.

Other traditional uses were butchers’ chopping blocks, piano hammers, wood screws, coach wheels and cogs for windmills and water mills. It was also coppiced and pollarded for poles. The wood burns well and makes good firewood and charcoal. It is used for burning Qvevri.

A tonic made from hornbeam was said to relieve tiredness and exhaustion, and its leaves were used to stop bleeding and heal wounds.

Hornbeams provide shelter, roosting, nesting and foraging opportunities for birds and small mammals. It is the food plant for caterpillars of a number of moth species. Finches and tits and small mammals eat the seeds in autumn.

Hawthorn

Crataegus caucasica

Hawthorn

Hawthorn

Mature trees can reach a height of 15 m and are characterised by their dense, thorny habit, though they can grow as a small tree with a single stem. The bark is brown-grey, knotted and fissured, and twigs are slender and brown and covered in thorns.

The leaves are around 6 cm in length and comprised of toothed lobes, which cut at least halfway to the middle or ‘mid-rib’. They turn yellow before falling in autumn.

Hawthorn

Hawthorn

Male and female reproductive parts are contained within each flower. Flowers are highly scented, white or occasionally pink with five petals, and grow in flat-topped clusters. Once pollinated by insects, they develop into deep-red fruits known as ‚haws’.

This species is commonly found growing in hedgerows, woodland and scrub. It will grow in most soils, but flowers and fruits best in full sun. It has long been grown as a hedging plant and is a popular choice in wildlife gardens.

Common hawthorn timber is a creamy-brown colour, finely grained and very hard. It can be used in turnery and engraving and to make veneers and cabinets, as well as boxes, tool handles and boat parts. It also makes good firewood and charcoal, and has a reputation for burning at high temperatures.

The young leaves, flower buds and young flowers are all edible. They can be added to green salads and grated root salads. The leaves, berries, and flowers of hawthorn are used to make medicine.

Hawthorn is most commonly used for diseases of the heart and blood vessels, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. Hawthorn can help improve the amount of blood pumped out of the heart during contractions, widen the blood vessels, and increase the transmission of nerve signals. It is an incredible food resource for many different animal species.

The dense, thorny foliage makes fantastic nesting shelter for many species of bird.

Judas Tree

Cercis siliquastrum

Judas Tree

Judas Tree

This is an attractive, small deciduous tree with rounded, heart shaped leaves. In spring, clusters of pea-like flowers appear along the branches and trunk. These flowers are pink in colour and appear early in spring, before the foliage and are followed by long, flat, deep purple pods which hang decoratively throughout the tree. It reaches only 12 m in hight.

The nearly orbicular heart-shaped leaves emerge bronze red in spring, mature to deep green by summer and finally turn pale yellow to greenish-yellow to chestnut in fall. The flowers are. Pollinated by bees, which are attracted by the nectar. The seed pods mature by late summer and usually remain on the tree well into winter.

Judas Tree

Judas Tree

According to the legend, this is the tree that Judas the apostle hung himself, it is found everywhere in Israel. That might be why that name stuck. But it might also simply come from the fact that it is native to Judea.

The Judas tree produces hard wood with an attractive grain. It is used in veneers and polishes well. The flowers are edible and can be added to salads, eaten fried, or they can be preserved in spicy marinade. It is a popular astringent because of its pods. The bark is also used against headaches and flu. It is also referred to as a traditional Palestinian medicinal plant for its origins and studies demonstrating its impact on breast cancer.

It provides nectar and pollen for bees and many other types of pollinating insects.

The board shows you some of the trees, which grow in the direct neighborhood. They are easy to find. Nevertheless, more tree species can be found in the wider area of this forest.

If you seek help for further identification, we recommend

  • Flora incognita https:// floraincognita.com
  • „The main tree species of Georgian forests“. Field Guide. Lasha Dzadzamia
  • „Common trees and shrubs of Georgia. A field guide“: http://environment.cenn.org/app/uploads/2016/09/CENN_Field-Guide_ADC-SFG_ENG-2.pdf

Related Posts